Vyšel toolkit Qt verze 5.14. Změny se týkají především Qt Quick, jeho odstínění od konkrétních nízkoúrovňových grafických API a zlepšení výkonu zvláště ve 3D. Začíná tím proces postupných příprav na Qt 6. Příští vydání (5.15) bude s dlouhodobou podporou. Aktuálně také vyšlo vývojové prostředí Qt Creator 4.11 – vedle oprav chyb a řady zjednodušení konfigurace přidává mj. experimentální podporu WebAssembly.
Byla vydána nová verze 1.41 editoru zdrojových kódů Visual Studio Code (Wikipedie). Přehled novinek i s náhledy a animovanými gify v poznámkách k vydání. Ve verzi 1.41 bylo vydáno také VSCodium, tj. komunitní sestavení Visual Studia Code bez telemetrie a licenčních podmínek Microsoftu.
J2EE, nověji Java EE a nejnověji Jakarta EE, tj. Java pro vývoj a provoz podnikových aplikací a informačních systémů (Java Platform, Enterprise Edition), slaví 20 let. První verze J2EE 1.2 byla vydána 12. prosince 1999.
V kancelářích společnosti NGINX, tj. společnosti stojící za stejnojmenným webovým serverem a reverzní proxy, v Moskvě proběhla policejní razie. Na NGINX si nárokuje práva společnost Rambler. Igor Sysoev, zakladatel společnosti NGINX, ve společnosti Rambler pracoval v letech 2000 až 2011. V březnu letošního roku byla společnost NGINX prodána společnosti F5 Networks za 670 milionů dolarů.
Vyšel Vim 8.2. Jedná se převážně o opravnou verzi tohoto textového editoru, ale mezi několika novými funkcemi je také možnost používat vyskakovací okna v uživatelském rozhraní, což využijí zvláště vývojáři doplňků pro dialogová okna či okna s nápovědou, napovídáním atp. Ukázkou je hra killersheep.
Nezisková organizace Electronic Frontier Foundation vydala obsáhlý článek vysvětlující plošné techniky online sledování používané k hromadění dat korporacemi, shrnuje další využití těchto dat a naznačuje, jak se tomu bránit: technicky a legislativně.
Ve středu, 18. prosince od 17:00 do 20:00, se uskuteční šestý Avast C++ Meetup. Přednášet bude Timur Doumler (člen ISO C++ komise) na téma „Type punning in modern C++“ a Chandler Carruth (Google, LLVM, člen ISO C++ komise) na téma „Programming Language Design for Performance Critical Software“. Registrace zdarma na meetup.com. Video stream bude dostupný v YouTube playlistu meetupu.
Daniel Vetter se v příspěvku Upstream Graphics: Too Little, Too Late (Grafika v upstreamu: příliš málo, příliš pozdě) na svém blogu věnuje podpoře a problémům grafiky v upstream Linuxu. Jedná se o souhrn jeho stejnojmenné přednášky na Linux Plumbers Conference (videozáznam, pdf).
1) What task or obstacle - that the user community can get involved in trying to solve - do you consider the biggest hurdle in mass adoption of Linux on the desktop? In other words, what can a regular user do to help Linux?
Well, the first thing I think that anybody can do is become familiar with Linux and that means using its science, using it at the right places, using it in places where its appropriate. And the more general users we have, the more general awareness of Linux is increased, and the more comfortable people become with choosing Linux for small projects or specific deployments. Linux is already extremely capable as a platform and the primary blocker for adoption is really a lack of awareness that the general public has about what can be achieved using the free software platform. And the reliability and maintainability of that. So simple using it and showing other people how to use it is a tremendous contribution that you can make.
Then there are other things which require a little more expertise or a little more knowledge. For example, you can contribute translations to make sure that the platform is more completely translated to you home language, and that makes it better for other new users in that same language. And you can take a more proactive role in helping to bring new users to the Linux platform – what we would call advocacy – by participating in Linux user groups or attending conferences and shows, and encouraging people to try Linux.
2) How would you go about persuading the gaming industry to develop their products for Linux? Is it just a question of userbase, or do you see other problems as well?
That's a very good question because gaming is one the key things that has not yet arrived in Linux, if you want to think of it that way. I think there are two primary issues. The first is that Linux as a platform is fragmented. And for proprietary application developers that fragmentation represents something of a problem. So we need to work together with all other versions of Linux to create more standardisation for proprietary application developers.
The second thing is, I think we need to play more to our strengths. Linux is an extremely good real-time and networked operating system. And so I think there are some kinds of games that are possible on Linux which really aren't possible on Windows. It would be good to see game developers focus on the Linux platform to get the most out of that platform, and create new kinds of games that are special for Linux.
3) Has the success of Ubuntu taken you by surprise? Have you been forced to make some radical changes in plans with regard to the rate of growth.
It has been quite a surprise how popular Ubuntu has become, and it's really I think due to the fact that we've built such a wonderful community that people feel they can come to Ubuntu, they can participate, they can ask questions, they can start to help other users, they can contribute translations. And so that community is a fantastic and wonderful part of the Ubuntu project.
And we have had to make some fairly radical changes to the plan in order to accommodate the growth of that community. But I think that's a very healthy sign, a very good thing.
4) How are you looking forward to KDE 4? Is there a possibility of KDE 4 ever displacing Gnome as the default 'desktop of choice' for Ubuntu?
That's interesting. I'm really looking forward to Plasma and I've seen that Plasma is starting to land in some of the latest snapshots of KDE 4. I think there's some great technology work being done there.
I think it's unlikely that KDE replaces Gnome as default Ubuntu desktop. And the main reason is that we don't, at this stage, have the same level of confidence in the KDE project's ability to deliver predictable release schedules. You know, the Ubuntu release schedule, release process is a very important part of what we do, and Gnome has exactly the same release philosophy that we do, which is that it's very important to release predictably every six months. Because KDE doesn't do that, it would be much more difficult just to deliver the same level of predictability and planning to the operating system. So for the moment I think we will stick with Gnome.
5) So it's not exactly about technical merits. It's about availability and about you being able to base the schedule on Gnome?
Yeah, there were two main drivers for us choosing Gnome as the first and therefore default desktop. The first was their commitment to the six month release schedule – and they actually had a track record of doing that. And I believe that KDE could do this. I'm strongly encouraging KDE to adopt the same release schedule as Gnome, because I think they would become more widely tested and more widely adopted if they did this.
And the second thing was Gnome's real commitment to usability. They really care about how easy to use the desktop is. And KDE, at that time, was more interested in fancy features. So while there's room in the world for both of these philosophies, we need to pick one. And those values were closer to what we were looking for. So we went with Gnome.
We have a fantastic community project in Kubuntu which works very closely with the KDE community. I would love to see Kubuntu get more downloads, wider adoption, and broader interest. But at this stage it can't be the default desktop for Ubuntu.
6) Some upstream developers and translators are a bit disenchanted by the Rosetta system. Many translations do not make it upstream and sometimes not even to new versions of Ubuntu. Where's the glitch and what to do about it?
The Rosetta backend is very complex because it's tracking simultaneously what's going on upstream and what's going on in the distro, what the current state is inside a particular package, and it needs to discern what the state is in the database. So we've not yet put in place the infrastructure to automatically push strings from one release of Ubuntu to the next release of Ubuntu, or from Ubuntu to upstream.
However, upstreams can, very easily, pull those translations into their own translation files. And we have standardised mechanisms for upstreams to be able to do that. So I would encourage upstreams to actively pull translations from Rosetta to improve the flow of these translations to upstream and then to other distributions as well as Ubuntu.
7) In your announcement of the Gutsy Gibbon you mentioned a new Ubuntu flavor: a completely free software distribution with no binary drivers or firmware. Why do you think it's important to have a release like that?
Well, I think it's important to show people exactly what is possible only with free software. And to go further than that and say what is possible only using content that is free as well, which is something that no distribution has ever done. So we created Gobuntu as a place for that kind of work. It's a relatively small project but I think it's important to demonstrate the possibilities of a purely free platform.
8) Is Canonical always going to be an organization funded from other sources, or would you like it to eventually adopt a business plan for it to be able to support itself?
I think it's important for a project to have both non-profit and for-profit capabilities. So we have both the Ubuntu project and Canonical as separate entities. Canonical provides things like technical support, professional services, consulting, and certified solutions. And the Ubuntu project is where the community works. So it's important for us to have both of those and I would very much expect Canonical to grow as Ubuntu becomes more popular, so that Canonical can effectively end up funding much of the work that happens in Ubuntu. I will continue to fund Ubuntu regardless, because I think it's important for the world to have this capability. Linux was the key to my business success, and I want to make sure that the opportunity is available to other people as well.
9) Do you think Microsoft's patent deals are just an attempt to slow down Linux, or do you think there might be some genuine interest in cooperation?
That's a complicated question because it suggests that Microsoft has one single opinion. But like any large organisation, Microsoft will have people internal to it who have a variety of different opinions. So I definitely do believe that some of the folks who are working at Microsoft on the patent deals have a genuine interest in seeing interoperability across Windows and across the free software platform. Unfortunately, I think other people at Microsoft do feel it's a way of limiting the field of engagement between the free software world and the proprietary software world, and making sure that Microsoft effectively has a competitive advantage in that engagement.
At this stage, all of the deals that have been announced really are very advantageous to Microsoft, and create real barriers to the complete a pervasive adoption of free software. In addition to that, I do think that Microsoft attempts to have its own file formats declared a standard in very bad faith. Because they're pretending to create a standard when in fact the only thing that comes close to implementation of that standard is the Microsoft Office application. And the real value of a standard is to have something which is agreed upon by lots of different groups and implemented by lots of different groups. And that's just not the case with Microsoft's file formats. More importantly, I don't think they will allow other people to implement the standard, they'll simply change it to suit themselves.
So, Microsoft is a large organisation and I think there are people with good ideas and with bad ideas. It's not simple. I don't think we can simply say that the whole organisation is being constructive or unconstructive. I think we have to look at specific initiatives. Unfortunately, their OpenXML document standard initiative is being driven with poor intention at heart.
10) While Richard Stallman is an outspoken critic of the so-called tivoisation, Linus Torvalds just doesn't mind when Linux is used in proprietary devices. What is your stance?
I do think that DRM, tivoisation, or locked down hardware and software are all a real threat to continued spread of free software. And so I very much support Richard Stallman [interview] and the Free Software Foundation in bringing those issues to the front in the debate of GPLv3.
At the same time I think we have to respect the kernel community's choice to license their software under whatever license they choose. And the kernel community has consistently taken quite an open approach to allowing people to do pretty much what they liked with the Linux kernel code. It's not entirely true, but it's true in many cases. The main thing to point out though is that this really is not an issue for free software. In Ubuntu we ship software under, maybe, a hundred and fifty different licenses. So adding GPLv3 as the hundred a fifty-first license is not a problem at all and Linux will continue to progress, regardless of whether the kernel team adopts v2 or v3. As for myself, I think v3 is a very good license, I think it went through a very strong public process, and I think it's a much better license in the end than it was when it began. So I think there's every reason for the kernel community to consider it, but if they choose not to adopt it then that's fine too.
11) In light of recent events, it does not seem probable that the development of the Reiser filesystem will continue. As it is in many ways a revolutionary piece of software, would you consider sponsoring its further development?
I don't know ReiserFS at all, I've never used it myself. And I know that many of the system administrators that I speak with aren't particularly interested in its features. So, at this stage, it's not something that I would consider sponsoring.
12) Should Ubuntu conquer the desktop market, thus solving the famous bug number one, what would be your next challenge? You're an accomplished entrepreneur, you've been to the space, you've taken on Windows. What's next on your list?
That's interesting. The world is a fascinating place and it's always changing. And my interest is always in finding big changes in the world and then trying to accelerate them, and be part of them. So I don't know. It would depend very much on how long it takes for Ubuntu to establish itself and become sustainable. I really won't start looking for another project until I'm comfortable that Ubuntu has fulfilled all its potential – one way or the other. So, for the moment, my attention is entirely focused on Ubuntu.
13) Has your university education been instrumental in helping you to achieve your goals?
I think the time that I spent at university was instrumental. Because it was a time when I was able to explore all sorts of fascinating things in technology, and learn a lot about technology. I think relatively little of the courses I actually attended at the university turned up to be that useful. It's useful to know a little bit about accounting, it's useful to know a little bit about finance, it's useful to know a little bit about technology, and it's useful to know a little bit about marketing. But in practice, when you pursue the things that you're passionate about, you will learn more by exploring your own interests than anybody can teach you.
I really would encourage people to go to university, but I would encourage them, while they're at university, not to get too stuck on what lectures are trying to tell them, and rather to learn as much as possible about the world, to read as much as possible about the world, and interact with other people who are interested in the same things, and to pursue their passions, wherever they might lead.
14) Where do you find motivation to continue working? What do you do in your free time?
My motivation mainly comes from the fact that I believe we can play a role in changing the world, and that the platform that we are building is going to make a difference in industry, in business, and in people's social lives. I think it's going to make a difference in developing countries and on Wall Street. And that's an extraordinary dream, an extraordinary vision, so it's powerful enough to want to devote myself and all of my energy to that cause.
I think you have to be willing to work incredibly hard, and it's much easier to be motivated to work hard if you think that what you're doing is important, rewarding, and exciting. It's really hard to be motivated to do something that's been done before. But what we're trying to achieve, has never been done before, so it's exciting.
15) OK, how about your free time? Give us a few of your hobbies.
When I have some down time I read quite a lot, I read a lot of sci-fi, if I'm out near the sea, I like a bit of kite-surfing, and for the rest, I generally relax a lot.
16) It looks as if everything you touch turns to a success. How about failures? What do you do when things just don't work out?
That's a very good question and I think one of the things that I've learned in life is that a setback or failure isn't the end of the world. The story that I remember most about this is a story from the Second world war where the British Navy realised that when their ships were sinking at night in the North sea in very cold water, that when the rescue ships arrived, the people who had survived in the water were not the young fit guys of about 18 or 20 but rather the older guys of 35 to 45 who technically weren't as fit anymore, so technically shouldn't survive. But maybe the older guys had adopted a more sort of philosophical approach to life and they realised that suddenly being thrown in the deep dark water in the middle of night didn't necessarily mean that you should give up. So they would tread water and they stood a better chance of surviving.
I guess I've learned two things. The first that the main fear we have is the fear of starting something and the fear of failure. And you should never let the fear of failure prevent you from trying to achieve something that you think you can achieve. Starting is the most difficult part of all. And once you have gotten over your fear of failure then you can start and then you find out if you can succeed. That's the first thing.
And the second thing is that you're probably more capable and tougher than you think you are. So there's nothing wrong with throwing yourself into the deep end and finding out just how far and fast you can swim.
17) Then there were a lot of those quasi-patriotic inquiries... It basically boils down to the following two questions: Have you ever been to the Czech Republic? - and - Have you ever tried some Czech beer?
(laughing) I have been to the Czech Republic, actually, in 1996. My girlfriend and I spent two weeks driving around the Czech Republic. We were down in Telc and Ceske Budejovice, and we had a really good time, it was lovely. We had a tiny little Škoda and we just travelled around and found great little pensions, and really enjoyed the country.
And yes, I enjoy Czech beer, I enjoyed it in the Czech Republic, and I still enjoy it here in London. Budvar is one of my favourite beers.
Many of our readers would like to use this opportunity to thank you for your commitment to free software and Linux. – And I would like to add that I thank you for your time and the interesting interview. Is there anything else you would like to share with the Czech Linux users?
Let me just say thank you for the questions and also to say thank you to your readers and your users because Linux is all about people who use it and who help to make it better. And so I wish you all feel great about being part of, I think, the next wave of technology and computing.
Nástroje: Tisk bez diskuse